In doing some quick research on the topic, I found that many factors can affect the shading and patterns found on largemouth, some more than others. The main factors of which is geographic location, and genetics, but even more important is the habitat that the fish is found in such as, water clarity, vegetation, chemistry, and depth. In going from South to North across the United States one might find that bass seem to show darker and darker patterning, although this could be partly due to increasing water clarity in the northern waters, with generally more turbid waters in the south. Another factor in coloration is of course, genetics. As in all species, offspring will look most similar to their parents, but these similarities might be too minimal for one to notice within one lake as opposed to on a national scale. The more indicative factors which influence a fish’s color are the features of its habitat at that particular time, as bass can acclimate to new water and change color in a mere 30 minutes! One of the factors is the pH of the water, which generally varies from lake-to-lake. One factor that can affect pH even when going from one area of a lake to another is vegetation, especially when vegetation is dead and decomposing. This creates a more acidic environment, resulting in a darker colored bass in immediate vegetation, where as a bass near less vegetation will be more pale. Another significant factor is the clarity of the water and depth, or more specifically, the amount of light allowed to penetrate to the bass. Photoreceptors (light receptors) located in the eyes, induce the release or retention of hormones, which tell the skin pigments to move closer to the surface of the skin (darker) or deeper within the skin (more pale). This means that a caught largemouth that appears lighter with less distinct markings was likely residing in deeper or more turbid waters, and a bass with dark-green color, and very apparent markings was residing in very clear, shallow, and/or heavily vegetated waters.
This information can and has been utilized by anglers to determine where to fish, following a successful catch. For instance, if you were fishing with a top-water bait in a clear lake and catch a very pale bass with indistinctive patterns, the fish likely came from deep water to feed. In another case if one was fishing next to a shallow weed-line which then drops off rapidly into open water, in a lake with moderate clarity, you could infer that a pale fish came up from the deep water to feed at the weed-line, and that a dark fish probably came from within the weeds where more camouflage is needed.
For more information on the colors of largemouth bass and the factors that influence it, you can visit http://www.activistangler.com/journal/2016/2/16/bass-appearance-influenced-by-habitat-other-factors.html